One can assume that literate programming may make easier to comprehend source code since the writer will omit less information.
“Literate programming encourages meaningful documentation and the inclusion of details that are usually omitted in source code such as the description of algorithms, design decisions, and implementation strategy.” Daniel Mall
Also it will transform the source code to be similar to other forms of written work.
“Literate programs are written to be read by other software developers.” Daniel Mall
Still you will have to get prior knowledge about operating systems, web applications, concurrency, graph theory, … to create understanding as you read. Moreover (something that came to my mind this morning), what will happen with the other things you need to know before you can start reading (or writing)? It will be interesting to find a literate program in other language than English (how easy will be to read a literate program in Chinese?). Maybe the fact that programming languages are simpler than English will not make a huge difference while reading (assuming than a lot of people in computer science have that skill) but it will be important while writing literate programs.